Links to Systematics and Evolutionary Biology Web Sites
The following is a brief listing of other sites on the WWWeb that
are related to systematics and evolutionary biology. As always, this
page will be continually updated as new sites appear and disappear. Let
me know the URL of any other sites on the web that should be considered
for inclusion as well as any broken links.
General: All Organisms
- Resources for Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, Systematics, and Conservation Biology.
Maintained by Kent Holsinger (University of Connecticut). Lists
taxonomic and phylogenetic information, phylogeny software, taxonomic
information on specific groups, nomenclature, interactive
identification software, collections mangagement software,
bibliographies, resources for plant systematists, and floras and
Atlases online. VERY USEFUL!
- The Tree of Life
is used by those interested in locating information about a particular
group of organisms, by biologists seeking identification keys, figures,
phylogenetic trees, and other systematic information for a group of
organisms, and by educators teaching about organismal diversity. The
site was designed by David Maddison, Wayne Maddison, and Katja Schulz
and is continually evolving as new data are entered.
Has a search engine that provides access to known illustrations and
photographs of living organisms. Links to additional information also
- TreeBASE. is a
relational database of phylogenetic information sponsored by the NSF,
Harvard University Herbaria, and the University of California, Davis.
TreeBASE stores phylogenetic trees and the data matrices used to
generate them from published research papers.
- NCBI Taxonomy Browser. Allows access to molecular data on all living organisms via a taxonomic hierarchy.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Allows one to: locate
scientific name and other information for a taxon, generate reports,
extract scientific name and other associated data from ITIS, download
data, load data to your office/home site, compare
taxonomy/nomenclature, match your list of taxa to the ITIS Database,
submit data to the ITIS database, access the Taxonomic Workbench and
download the Workbench software.
- The Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification
sponsored by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
(NWO), the University of Amsterdam and UNESCO, publishes taxonomic
information on interactive multimedia CD-ROMs and sponsor the online
World Biodiversity Database.
- Species 2000. Has the
objective of enumerating all known species of organisms on Earth
(animals, plants, fungi and microbes) as the baseline dataset for
studies of global biodiversity.
- Biodiversity on the Internet. See large collection of links on THIS page.
- INBio. The
National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) of Costa Rica is a private
research and biodiversity management center, established in 1989 to
support efforts to gather knowledge on the country's biological
diversity and promote its sustainable use. INBio is a non-governmental,
non-profit, public interest organization of civil society that works in
close collaboration with different government institutions,
universities, the private sector and other public and private
organizations, both within and outside Costa Rica. INBio's work focuses
on the following areas of action:Inventory and Monitoring,
Conservation, Communications and education, Biodiversity informatics,
- Natural History Museum of London Collection Navigator.
Collections Navigator gives web access to the wide range of collections
held at the Natural History Museum. It includes very general data about
the science department collections. There are also lists of the
manuscript collections found in the Entomology Library and the Library
- Digital Taxonomy
is an attempt to present a wide-ranging resource of information for
biodiversity data management in the World Wide Web, and promote the
effective use of computers for handling biological sofware development
projects. Digital Taxonomy provides a range of links on software,
hardware, methodologies, standards, data sources, and projects related
to biodiversity data management, covering DELTA, taxonomic databases,
ecology, morphometrics, and phylogenetic analysis software, with
emphasis on the exchange of free scientific software tools (preferably
those including source code), computer techniques, and Internet
addresses of developers and distributors of free bioinformatics
- Universal Biological Indexer and Organizer.
uBio is an initiative within the science library community to join
international efforts to create and utilize a comprehensive and
collaborative catalog of names of all living (and once-living)
organisms. The Taxonomic Name Server (TNS) catalogs names and
classifications to enable tools that can help users find information on
living things using any of the names that may be related to an
- Glasgow Taxonomic Name Server The Glasgow Name Server is an experimental tool for finding taxonomic names. Developed by Rod Page.
- Discover Life. Helps
you to identify things, share ways to teach and study nature's wonders,
use maps, report your findings, and contribute to and learn from the
Web's growing encyclopedia of life. The Polistes Foundation and its
partners link tools and databases to the site. Our plan is to make
identification guides and valuable information on a million species
freely available to everyone. We invite you to join us in a quest to
reduce disease, increase food production, stop destructive species,
protect endangered ones, and enjoy rather than struggle with nature.
(Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy. This list is
provided as a preliminary guide to some examples of the systematic
data, databases and systematic tools currently available on the
internet. It is not exhaustive, but instead is intended to provide
access to some additional sites that conform to the spirit of the PEET
program in making systematic/taxonomic data available in electronic
format, and to the tools that make that possible.
- Systematics Servers.
From the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of
Connecticut. Very useful- lists taxonomic and phylogenetic information,
phylogeny software, taxonomic information on specific groups,
nomenclature, interactive identification software, collections
mangagement software, bibliographies, resources for plant systematists,
and floras and Atlases Online. Maintained by Kent Holsinger.
- Internet Directory for Botany.
Maintained by R. Lampinen, Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural
History. A well-organized site for a diverse assemblage of botanical
- International Organization for Plant Information.Managed
by the IOPI is the Global Plant Checklist (GPC), a cooperative
international project designed to help humanity manage the earth's
biodiversity efficiently and sustainably. The Database has records from
6 major floristic datasets that have been imported, as well as 7
specialized family datasets. With a total of 248400 source records, the
GPC now covers 201,397 different plant names belonging to 135,491
- Botanical Images. List compiled by D. Nickrent (Southern Illinois University).
This site enables you to easily find images of all vascular plants and
has electronic, interactive keys for certain groups. Managed by Kevin
Nixon, Cornell University.
- The Virtual Library of Botany/Plant Biology by Scott Russell.
- International Plant Names Index. The data in the IPNI comes from three sources: the Index Kewensis (IK), the Gray Card Index (GCI) and the Australian Plant Names Index (APNI). Detailed information about these indices is available through the links above.
- ePIC. International Plant
Information Centre. ePIC is a major project to bring together all of
Kew's digitised information about plants and make it easier to search.
You can use it to pinpoint information of interest in our varied
collections, bibliographies, nomenclators and checklists, publications
and taxonomic works, as well as links to information resources provided
by external organisations.
- Vascular Plant Families and Genera.
Organized by Kew Botanic Gardens, this is an extremely useful resource
for those wishing complete lists of genera for ferns, fern allies,
gymnosperms and angiosperms.
- Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum).
This searchable database is a collaborative project of the
International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) and the Smithsonian
Institution, was initiated in 1954 as a compilation of generic names
published for all organisms covered by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
- Plants Database. The
USDA PLANTS Database provides standardized information about the
vascular plants, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, and lichens of the U.S.
and its territories. It includes names, plant symbols, checklists,
distributional data, species abstracts, characteristics, images, plant
links, references, crop information, and automated tools. PLANTS
reduces costs by minimizing duplication and making information exchange
possible across agencies and disciplines.
- Diagnostic Keys.
This page is a component of PlantSystematics.Org that gives keys to
angiosperms, ferns, and several other plant and animal groups (e.g.
On-Line (Digital) Herbaria
- SALVIAS. Synthesis and Analysis of Local Vegetation Inventories Across Scales.
SALVIA is a web-based utility for compiling data on diverse aspects of
plant organismal biology, including taxonomy, demography, phenology,
and biogeography. It is global in scope, but coverage is currently
strongly biased toward the Central and South American tropics. It is a
source of the following types of data: local plant inventories, tree
plots, vegetation cover plots, local species lists; compiled into a
single, standardized database; herbarium specimens; samples of
individual plants from herbarium databases worldwide; includes complete
collection information and geocoordinates, when available; plant
- The Virtual Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden. Only a tiny fraction of their specimens are currently online, but more are added all the time. The Vascular Plants Types Catalog, also at NY, provides specimen data and mages of all vascular plant type specimens at this institution.
- Australia's Virtual Herbarium.
AVH provides immediate access to the wealth of data associated with the
scientific plant collections held in each major Australian herbarium.
Australian herbaria house over six million specimens that date from the
earliest days of European exploration. They are the primary source of
information of classification and distribution of plants, including
algae, and fungi. In the future, the records of the AVH will be
enhanced by images, descriptive text and identification tools.
- The Linnean Herbarium at the Swedish Museum of Natural History
- Type Specimens of the Dutch Herbaria
- The John Clayton Herbarium at the Natural History Museum in London
- Fairchild Tropical Garden Virtual Herbarium.
- TROPICOS Image Index (Missouri Botanical Garden). W3TROPICOS
provides access to the Missouri Botanical Garden's VAST (VAScular
Tropicos) nomenclatural database and associated authority files. .
- Field Museum of Natural History type photograph collection.
- The University of Texas at Austin Herbaria. Includes the Flora of Texas Database, the Mexican Vascular Plant Database, and the Type Database.
- Smithsonian Botanical Types. Department of Systematic Biology - Botany.
- SMASCH. Specimen Management System for California Herbaria. Jepson Herbarium.
- Land Plants Online. This website, developed by Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia (SIUC).
- Deep Green. The Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group.
- Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Maintained by Peter Stevens at the Missouri Botanical Garden.
- Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. APGI (1998) and APGII (2003).
- The Families of Flowering Plants This site was constructed by L. Watson and M. M. Dallwitz. It contains description of families and links to illustrations.
- Flowering Plant Gateway at Texas A & M University Much useful information about plant families.
Bacterial and Viral Databases
- LBSN. List of Bacterial names with Standing in Nomenclature
- Bacterial Nomenclature Up-to-Date.
- Virus Database.
- American Type Culture Collection
- Encyclopedia of E. coli Genes and Metabolism
Animal and Protist Databases
- Animal Diversity Web Site. The University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.
- Zoology, Internet Resource Guide for. Zoological Record, BIOSIS, and the Zoological Society of London.
- TRITON Project. TRITON, the
Taxonomy Resource & Index To Organism Names, is a system under
development by BIOSIS UK as a mechanism for making data related to
names of both fossil and recent organisms, and in particular animal
nomenclatural data from the Zoological Record (ZR), available
on the www. TRITON accesses a database of over a million animal names,
at all taxonomic ranks, reported from the scientific literature of the
last 18 years, plus some 400,000 names of other non-animal organisms
provided by collaborating organizations.
- The Zoological Record. Published by BIOSIS (not free). Index to organism names is a free resource.
- Protist Databases.
This index attempts to provide a sampling of "the best of the Web" on
the diverse eukaryotes included within the protistan universe. Emphasis
is on sites that provide direct access to scholarly information on the
morphology, ultrastructure, molecular biology, taxonomy, ecology and
physiology of these organisms.
- Mammal Species of the World.
contains the names of the 4,629 currently recognized species of
mammals, in a taxonomic hierarchy that includes Order, Family,
Subfamily, and Genus. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
- American Fisheries Society.
- A Catalog of the Species of Fish.
- FishBase FishBase
on the web contains practically all fish species known to science.
FishBase 2004 is also available on DVD or CD-ROMs with full information
on 28,500 species.
- DeepFin. Contains a searchable
database of systematic ichthyologists with their contact information,
research interests, and publications. Also contains phylogenetic trees
for many groups of fishes. DeepFin is sponsored in part by the American
Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists and is affiliated with the
Tree of Life Web Project.
- All Catfish Species Inventory,
a NSF funded project that aims to facilitate the discovery, description
& dissemination of knowledge of all catfish species by a global
consortium of taxonomists & systematists. Contains a listing of
catfish families, identification keys, and phylogenies.
- Australian Museum Fish Collection. Contains interactive identification keys, as well as a searchable database of the museum's fish collections.
- California Academy of Sciences Ichthyology Search their collection, general catalog of fishes, or primary literature containing fishes of interest.
- Phylogeny of cypriniform fishes. Includes an interactive identification key, searchable database, as well as references.
- NISbase An International Nonindigenous Species Database
Network. Allows the user to search up to 6 databases for information on
invasive species. Results include information on the species' taxonomy,
ecology, distribution, and collection records.
- BirdNet. The Ornithological Information Source.
- The Internet Bird Collection.
The Internet Bird Collection (IBC) is a non-profit endeavour with the
ultimate goal of disseminating knowledge about the world's avifauna. It
is an on-line audiovisual library of footage of the world's birds that
is available to the general public free of charge. While the initial
aim is to post at least one video per species, the long-term objective
is to eventually include several videos showing a variety of biological
aspects (e.g. feeding, breeding, etc.) for every species.
- Birdlife International.
BirdLife International is a global Partnership of conservation
organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats and global
biodiversity, working with people towards sustainability in the use of
- EMBL Reptile Database.
- Center for North American Herpetology
- Entomology Index of Internet Resources. A directory and search engine of insect-related resources on the Internet from Iowa State.
- Scarab Beetle Research.
- Bishop Museum Hawaiian Arthropod Checklist Database.
- Biogeoinformatics of Hexacorals.
Biogeoinformatics of hexacorallia (corals, sea anemones, and their
allies): interfacing geospatial, taxonomic, and environmental data for
a group of marine invertebrates.
- CephBase. CephBase is
a dynamic relational database-driven web site that has been online
since 1998. The purpose of CephBase is to provide taxonomic data, life
history, distribution, images, videos, references and scientific
contact information on all living species of cephalopods (octopus,
squid, cuttlefish and nautilus) in an easy to access, user-friendly
- WWWeb Sites on Invertebrates. Provides a multitude of links to both database, and general information websites on invertebrates.
- PEET Bivales. Bivalves - Research, Training, Electronic Dissemination of Data
- Diagnostic Keys.
This page is a component of PlantSystematics.Org that gives keys to
angiosperms, ferns, and several other plant and animal groups (e.g.
Key Generation/Identification Programs
DEscription Language for TAxonomy is a flexible format for encoding
taxonomic descriptions for computer processing. It can be used to
produce natural-language descriptions, keys, classifications, and
systems for interactive identification and information retrieval.
is a package of programs that provide specialised tools for problems of
diagnosis or identification in biology or medicine. The programs are
designed to process descriptive data that are presented in DELTA format
(above) and generate output suitable for use when preparing monographs,
handbooks, floras or faunas. The same data can be used in the
interactive identification system also included in the package. The
programs were written by R. Pankhurst (email@example.com).
- LucID. Lucid tools are
powerful and highly flexible knowledge management software applications
designed to help users with identification or diagnostic tasks. Lucid
software is a special type of expert system, specifically designed for
identification and diagnostic purposes, which enables expert knowledge
to be "cloned" and distributed to a wide audience via CD or the
Internet. The large number of functions incorporated in the software
and the ability to include multi-media makes the creation and use of
identification and diagnostic keys easy, effective and enjoyable. The
Lucid toolkit currently includes matrix key development packages -
Lucid Professional 2.1 and Lucid3 - and a dichotomous key conversion
and development package - Lucid Phoenix - as well as a number of
specific utilities designed to facilitate the development of
identification or diagnostic keys.
- Biota2: The Biodiversity Database Manager. This commercial
software, written by Robert K. Colwell at the Univ. Connecticut, is
available through Sinauer Associates (their webpage HERE). Demonstration versions of the software can be downloaded HERE.
Biota2 is a specimen-based biodiversity and collections database
manager. It manages images linked to species, specimen, collection and
locality records and integrates a reference manager for literatuare
citations. With additional licensing, Biota2 files can be made
- Linnaeus II 2.5.
Commercial software (Mac and Windows) from ETI. This interactive
software facilitates biodiversity documentation and species
identification. It supports the creation of taxonomic databases,
optimizes the construction of easy-to-use identification keys,
expedites the display and comparison of distribution patterns, and
promotes the use of taxonomic data for biodiversity studies. A
demonstration version can be downloaded.
- MEKA. Free software (Windows). From Christopher Meacham, Jepson Herbarium, Berkeley CA.
- PollyClave. Free. By Tim Dickinson, Royal Ontario Museum.
- XID. Commercial software (Mac & Windows) Richard Old, XID Services, Inc., Pullman, WA. Free demonstration version..
- Cladistics.com. Software
for Systematics, including the tree-search parsimony-based programs
NONA and TNT and the data management analysis and tree editing program
- TDWG Subgroup on Biological Collection Data. Software for Biological Collection Management - a compilation of sites.
SALVIAS TaxonScrubber (version 1.2 Sept. 2004, a PC application for MS
Access) is a stand-alone application for automated standardization of
taxonomic names. In addition to removing spelling errors in species
names, TaxonScrubber splits concatenated information into separate
fields, and can be used to restructure flat-file specimen data prior to
importing to a relational database. Although designed primarily for
standardizing inventory data for the SALVIAS plots database,
TaxonScrubber can be used whenever large numbers of taxonomic records
need to be error-checked and reformated.
- Botanical Latin Homepage. Here you can download a program that translates your new-species descriptions into botanical Latin.
Specify is a research software application, a database,
and network interface for biological collections information.
It manages specimen data such as descriptions of collecting
locations, participants and determination histories as well as
information about collections transactions such as loans, exchanges,
acccessions and gifts.
a Herbarium Management System. Tracy is a system for the management of
herbarium collections. It is not a huge, all inclusive database tool.
Rather it was specifically designed to facilitate rapid entry of
specimen data by relatively un-skilled operators and to provide
mechanisms that allow complex queries of the data to be carried out
with a minimum of training.
- TDWG. Taxonomic Database
Working Group. The International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases
is a not for profit scientific and educational association, affiliated
to the International Union of Biological Sciences, formed to establish
international collaboration among biological database projects so as to
promote the wider and more effective dissemination of information about
the World's heritage of biological organisms for the benefit of the
world at large.
- Phylogenetics Resouces from UC Berkeley. A list of sites useful for scientists in phylogenetics.
- UCMP Phylogeny of Life.
University of California Museum of Paleontology. Learn about the
history and diversity of life—everything from whales to bacteria
over 3.5 billion years of life's history—by browsing our
extensive exhibit on the phylogeny of life on Earth. Wondering what in
the world "phylogeny" means, and how it relates to paleontology? Read
an introduction to phylogeny! Read tips on navigating the Phylogeny
Wing. Use our Web Lift to Taxa to look for a particular group of
- Phylodiversity Network. A permanent home for biodiversity, systematics, phylogenetics, and bioinformatics research.
- Phylomatic. Automatically produces trees for lists of taxa. Other utilities compare phylogenies among communities. By Cam Webb.
- Phylogeny Programs.
This site is maintained by Joe Felsenstein at the University of
Washington, Seattle. Lists (and describes) over 100 phylogeny packages
and 5 free servers. An extremely comprehensive and useful site for
those who think PAUP and PHYLIP are the only packages out there!
- PhyloCode. A formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature. But not everyone agrees with this new idea. See The Systematics Association discussion.
- SIUC / College of Science / Plants and Society
- URL: http://www.science.siu.edu/Plant-Biology/PLB449/SystematicsLinks.html
- Last updated: 07-Jul-07 / dln